Autoimmune diseases

28 May, 2021 | admin | No Comments

Autoimmune diseases

Such a powerful weapon as the immune system can attack one’s own body as well. Then autoimmune diseases occur. Different medications are prescribed for them, including:

Autoimmune diseases are diseases associated with the malfunctioning of the human immune system, which begins to perceive its own tissues as foreign and damage them. Such diseases are also called systemic diseases, because, as a rule, the whole system or even the whole organism is affected.

Nowadays, there is often talk about new infections that pose a threat to all mankind. These are, first of all, AIDS, but also SARS (SARS), avian flu and other viral diseases. If we recall the history, most of the dangerous viruses and bacteria were defeated, and to a large extent due to stimulation of our own immune system (vaccination).

The mechanism of these processes has not yet been identified. Specialists cannot understand what the negative reaction of the immune system to its own tissues is related to. Injuries, stress, hypothermia, various infectious diseases, etc. can provoke a malfunction in the body.

Doctors such as a general practitioner, immunologist, rheumatologist and other specialists can diagnose and treat systemic diseases.


The most well-known disease in this group is rheumatoid arthritis. However, this disease is by no means the most common autoimmune pathology. The most common autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland are diffuse toxic goiter (Graves’ disease) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. By autoimmune mechanism also develop type I diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis.

Not only diseases, but also some syndromes can be autoimmune in nature. A typical example is chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease caused by chlamydia. This disease can develop the so-called Reiter’s syndrome, which is characterized by lesions of the eyes, joints and genitourinary organs. These manifestations are not associated with direct exposure to the microbe, but arise from autoimmune reactions.


During the maturation of the immune system, the main time of which is from birth to 13-15 years, lymphocytes – cells of the immune system – undergo “training” in the thymus and lymph nodes. During this process, each clone of cells acquires the ability to recognize certain foreign proteins in order to fight various infections in the future.

Some lymphocytes learn to recognize the proteins of their own body as foreign. Normally, these lymphocytes are tightly controlled by the immune system and serve, presumably, to destroy inferior or diseased cells in the body. However, in some people, control over these cells is lost, their activity increases and the process of destroying normal cells is triggered – an autoimmune disease develops.

The causes of autoimmune diseases are insufficiently studied, but the existing information allows us to divide them into external and internal.

External causes are mainly infectious agents or physical influences such as ultraviolet radiation or radiation. When a certain tissue of the human body is affected, they change their own molecules in such a way that the immune system perceives them as foreign. After “attacking” the affected organ, the immune system causes chronic inflammation and, consequently, further damage to its own tissue.

Another external cause is the development of cross immunity. This occurs when the infectious agent turns out to be “similar” to its own cells – as a result, the immune system simultaneously attacks both the microbe and the cells (one explanation for Reiter’s syndrome with chlamydia).

Internal causes are primarily hereditary gene mutations.

Some mutations can change the antigenic structure of a certain organ or tissue, preventing lymphocytes from recognizing them as “their own” – such autoimmune diseases are called organ-specific. Then the disease itself will be inherited (different generations will be affected by the same organs).

Other mutations can imbalance the immune system by disrupting the control of auto-aggressive lymphocytes. Then a person, when exposed to stimulating factors, can become ill with an organ-specific autoimmune disease affecting many systems and organs.